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Elmax Steel: Its Composition, Properties, and Compare Elmax vs M390.

Written by:
Aleks Nemtcev
February 23, 2024

Among the myriad of options available to knife makers and enthusiasts, Elmax Steel emerges as a front-runner, offering a blend of unparalleled properties that cater to the highest standards of performance, durability, and aesthetics. This blog post embarks on an in-depth exploration of Elmax steel, a high chromium-vanadium-molybdenum alloy, renowned for its exceptional edge retention, corrosion resistance, and toughness. Developed through the advanced powder metallurgy process by Bohler-Uddeholm, Elmax steel is a testament to the strides made in material science, offering knife users a premium option that stands the test of time and use.



Chemical Composition of Elmax Steel

The exceptional qualities of Elmax steel can be traced back to its unique chemical composition, which is meticulously designed to enhance its performance in the most demanding environments. This section delves into the key elements that constitute this steel, comparing its composition with other popular knife steels to shed light on what sets it apart in terms of durability, toughness, and edge retention.elmax steel

Key Elements in Elmax Steel

Elmax steel is a high-carbon, high-chromium, vanadium, and molybdenum alloy. The precise balance of these elements contributes to its superior wear resistance, corrosion resistance, and ability to maintain a sharp edge over prolonged use. Here is a breakdown of its main components:

Carbon (C): At around 1.7%, the high carbon content is pivotal for achieving the high hardness levels that Elmax steel is known for, directly influencing its edge retention capabilities.

Chromium (Cr): Constituting approximately 18%, chromium not only imparts remarkable corrosion resistance but also plays a crucial role in the formation of hard carbides, enhancing wear resistance.

Molybdenum (Mo) and Vanadium (V): These elements, present at around 1.0% and 3.0% respectively, contribute to the steel’s overall toughness and strengthen its structure at the microscopic level, further improving wear resistance and facilitating fine edge sharpness.

Elmax Steel composition


Properties of Elmax Steel

The distinct chemical composition of this steel gives rise to a suite of properties that are highly prized in the knife-making community. These properties include exceptional hardness and wear resistance, superior corrosion resistance, and outstanding toughness and edge retention. This section delves into each of these attributes, illustrating how they contribute to the steel’s performance in various applications.

Hardness and Wear Resistance

Elmax steel’s high carbon and chromium content, along with significant amounts of vanadium and molybdenum, enable it to achieve high hardness levels—often reaching up to 60-62 HRC (Rockwell Hardness Scale) after proper heat treatment. This hardness is a critical factor in the steel’s wear resistance, allowing knives made from Elmax to endure cutting, slicing, and dicing tasks with minimal wear on the blade’s edge. This durability ensures that knives retain their sharpness over extended periods, reducing the frequency of sharpening and maintenance required.

Corrosion Resistance

The chromium content in Elmax steel exceeds 15%, a threshold that qualifies it as a stainless steel. This high chromium level forms a protective oxide layer on the surface of the steel, shielding it from various forms of corrosion. As a result,  knives are well-suited for use in moist or corrosive environments, such as in marine applications or when processing acidic foods, offering a significant advantage over less corrosion-resistant steels.

Toughness and Edge Retention

Despite its hardness, Elmax steel also exhibits remarkable toughness—a property that prevents the blade from chipping or cracking under stress. This toughness is attributed to its refined microstructure, achieved through the powder metallurgy process, which ensures a uniform distribution of carbides throughout the steel. Furthermore, the vanadium content enhances the steel’s ability to maintain a sharp edge, providing superior edge retention. This combination of toughness and edge retention means that knives can perform demanding tasks without the edge degrading, making them reliable tools for both professional chefs and outdoor enthusiasts.

Hardness vs. Toughness

One of the most significant challenges in knife steel design is balancing hardness with toughness. Typically, as hardness increases, toughness decreases, making the steel more prone to chipping or breaking. However, Elmax Steel strikes an impressive balance between these two properties, thanks to its advanced chemical composition and manufacturing process. This balance ensures that knives made from Elmax steel offer a high degree of resilience against both wear and impact, setting a benchmark in performance that few other steels can match.

Elmax properties

Manufacturing Process: The Science Behind Steel

The exceptional characteristics of Elmax steel are not solely the result of its chemical composition but also a testament to the sophisticated manufacturing process it undergoes. The powder metallurgy process, central to the production of Elmax steel, plays a pivotal role in achieving its superior properties. This section delves into the intricacies of this process and its impact on the steel’s performance.

Powder Metallurgy

Powder metallurgy is a cutting-edge manufacturing technique that involves three primary stages: atomization, pressing, and sintering. Elmax steel begins its journey as a carefully measured blend of raw materials, which is melted and then atomized—sprayed as a fine mist into a chamber where it solidifies into tiny, uniform particles. These particles are then pressed under high pressure to form a dense mass, which is subsequently heated to just below its melting point in a process known as sintering. This step fuses the particles together, resulting in a material with an exceptionally uniform microstructure.

Advantages of Powder Metallurgy

The powder metallurgy process offers several advantages over traditional steel-making methods, particularly when it comes to the homogeneity and purity of the final product. The uniform distribution of carbides—hard particles that contribute to wear resistance and edge retention—is a direct benefit of this process, ensuring that Elmax steel blades perform consistently across their entire length and breadth. Moreover, the absence of impurities and inclusions, common in conventionally forged steels, significantly enhances the toughness and overall durability of Elmax steel, making it less prone to chipping or breaking under stress.

Vidio credit: Uddeholm.

Comparative Analysis with Other Steels

When juxtaposed with other premium knife steels, such as M390, S30V, and CPM S35VN, Elmax steel showcases a balanced profile that emphasizes both edge retention and corrosion resistance without compromising on toughness. While M390 might offer slightly superior corrosion resistance due to its higher chromium content, Elmax steel provides a commendable balance that ensures its edges stay sharper for longer, even under heavy use. Compared to S30V and S35VN, Elmax steel typically exhibits better wear resistance, thanks to its higher vanadium content, which allows for the formation of harder carbides.

Steel Edge Retention Corrosion Resistance Toughness Sharpening Difficulty Best Used For
Elmax High High High Moderate Cutting tools, outdoor and tactical knives
M390 Very High Very High High Difficult High-end knives, professional, culinary
MagnaCut High Very High Very High Moderate Premium outdoor, tactical, kitchen
S35VN High High Very High Moderate Premium EDC and tactical knives
20CV Very High Very High High Difficult High-quality knives with excellent edge retention
Laminated CoS High Moderate Very High Moderate to Difficult Japanese knives, professional culinary

This table outlines the general characteristics of each steel, highlighting their suitability for different applications. The choice of steel can significantly impact a knife’s performance, maintenance requirements, and overall longevity, catering to the diverse needs and preferences of knife users and collectors.

Elmax vs M390

In the debate between Elmax and M390 steels, understanding their distinct properties and applications is crucial for knife makers and users making an informed choice. Both steels emerge from advanced powder metallurgy processes, which endow them with superior structural uniformity and purity. Elmax is notable for its balance of wear resistance, corrosion resistance, and toughness, making it a versatile option for various knife uses. M390, however, is distinguished by its exceptional edge retention and corrosion resistance, alongside high toughness, with a composition that slightly enhances its wear resistance over Elmax.

elmax vs m390


The ratings are on a scale of 1 to 10, with 10 indicating the highest performance in each category.
These comparisons are general and can vary slightly based on the specific heat treatment and manufacturing process used by the knife maker.
This chart aims to highlight the nuanced differences between Elmax and M390 steels, offering knife makers and users insights into which steel might best suit their needs based on hardness, edge retention, toughness, corrosion resistance, and ease of sharpening.

Feature Elmax M390
Composition High chromium, vanadium, and molybdenum. Higher chromium, vanadium, and molybdenum than Elmax.
Edge Retention High Very High
Corrosion Resistance High Very High
Toughness High High, but slightly less than Elmax due to its higher hardness.
Wear Resistance Very High Extremely High
Sharpening Difficulty Moderate to Difficult Difficult
Best Used For Versatile cutting tools, outdoor and tactical knives. High-end knives, including professional and culinary applications.
Overall Performance Excellent balance of toughness, wear resistance, and corrosion resistance. Slightly better edge retention and corrosion resistance, at the expense of being harder to sharpen.

This table highlights the comparative features of Elmax and M390 steels. Both steels offer exceptional performance, with M390 edging out slightly in terms of edge retention and corrosion resistance due to its enriched composition. However, this comes at the cost of increased difficulty in sharpening. Elmax provides a more balanced profile that makes it slightly easier to maintain while still offering excellent durability and resistance characteristics.

Detailed Comparison:

Hardness and Edge Retention: M390 typically offers a slightly higher hardness level, which contributes to its edge retention superiority over Elmax. However, this difference is often minimal in practical use, with both steels providing excellent longevity of sharpness.

Toughness: Elmax impresses with its toughness, offering resistance to chipping and breaking, which is comparable to M390. Both steels perform admirably under stress, though the specific choice may depend on the intended use of the knife.

Corrosion Resistance: M390’s elevated chromium content gives it an edge in corrosion resistance, making it slightly more suitable for environments where moisture and corrosive elements are a concern.

Ease of Sharpening: While both steels are challenging to sharpen due to their hardness, Elmax is often perceived to be marginally easier to work with in this regard, providing a slight advantage for those who prioritize ease of maintenance.

Addressing User Intent:
For users prioritizing edge retention and corrosion resistance, especially in moist or corrosive environments, M390 might be the preferable choice. On the other hand, Elmax could be favored for its slightly easier sharpening process and excellent overall performance, making it ideal for a wide range of applications from culinary to outdoor activities.

Objective Analysis:
Both Elmax and M390 stand out in the knife steel market for their advanced properties and performance. The decision between the two should be guided by specific user needs and knife applications, considering the subtle differences in hardness, corrosion resistance, and maintenance. Each steel has its strengths and potential drawbacks, with the choice ultimately boiling down to personal preference and the intended use of the knife.

Elmax vs MagnaCut

Elmax and MagnaCut represent the innovative forefront of knife steel technology. Elmax is well-regarded for its all-around performance, offering a remarkable blend of durability, corrosion resistance, and ease of sharpening relative to its hardness. MagnaCut, a newer entry into the market, has quickly gained acclaim for its exceptional toughness and corrosion resistance while maintaining excellent edge retention. Designed specifically to address the trade-offs typically seen in knife steels, MagnaCut provides an outstanding balance that challenges older steels like Elmax, especially in environments demanding high toughness and corrosion resistance without sacrificing edge performance.

Elmax vs S35VN

Comparing Elmax to S35VN involves two steels that have significantly impacted the knife industry. Elmax is often celebrated for its superior wear resistance and ability to maintain a sharp edge, alongside excellent corrosion resistance. S35VN, developed as an improvement over the popular S30V, offers enhanced toughness and ease of sharpening while still providing great edge retention and corrosion resistance. S35VN is slightly easier to machine and sharpen than Elmax, making it a preferred choice for many manufacturers and users who prioritize ease of maintenance alongside performance.

Elmax vs 20CV

Elmax and 20CV are both highly regarded in the knife-making community for their premium qualities. The comparison between them is tight, as 20CV is known for its outstanding edge retention and corrosion resistance, closely mirroring the properties of M390 steel due to its similar composition. Elmax provides a comparable level of performance, with a focus on a balanced combination of toughness, wear resistance, and corrosion resistance. The choice between Elmax and 20CV often comes down to personal preference or specific application needs, as both steels excel in high-end knife production.

Lam CoS Steel vs Elmax

Laminated CoS steel, often found in Japanese knives, contrasts with Elmax through its unique structure, combining layers of high-performance steel (CoS) with softer stainless steel for enhanced toughness and edge stability. This lamination process offers exceptional sharpness and edge retention, attributable to the CoS core, while improving the blade’s overall toughness and resistance to chipping. Elmax, being a single steel composition, excels in uniform wear resistance, corrosion resistance, and edge retention. Laminated CoS steel knives are particularly valued for their aesthetic appeal and traditional craftsmanship, offering a different set of advantages focused on sharpness and durability.

Applications of Elmax Steel: Versatility in Cutting Tools

The unique blend of properties that Elmax steel offers—excellent wear resistance, superior corrosion resistance, impressive toughness, and unmatched edge retention—makes it a preferred material for a wide range of custom knives and cutting tools. This versatility ensures that Elmax steel finds its place in various high-demand applications, from the kitchen to the great outdoors. 

Chef’s Knives and Kitchen Cutlery

In the culinary world, where precision and durability are paramount, Elmax steel stands out. Chef’s knives, paring knives, and other kitchen cutlery made from this steel benefit from its ability to maintain a razor-sharp edge through extensive use. This sharpness, combined with the steel’s corrosion resistance, makes it ideal for processing a wide variety of ingredients, including acidic fruits and vegetables, without the risk of corrosion. Professional chefs and culinary enthusiasts appreciate Elmax steel knives for their long-lasting performance and minimal maintenance requirements, allowing them to focus on the art of cooking rather than the tools.

Hunting and Camping Knives

The toughness and edge retention of Elmax steel make it an excellent choice for outdoor knives, including hunting knives, camping knives, and survival tools. These applications demand a material that can withstand harsh conditions, retain its edge through rigorous tasks like cutting, skinning, and carving, and resist corrosion when exposed to the elements. Elmax steel meets these requirements, providing adventurers and hunters with reliable tools that perform consistently, whether preparing a campfire meal or dressing game in the field.

elmax steel knives

Folding Knives and EDC Tools

For everyday carry (EDC) enthusiasts, folding knives made from this steel offer a perfect blend of practicality and performance. The steel’s durability and ease of maintenance mean that these knives can handle daily tasks—from opening packages to cutting cord—without frequent sharpening. Moreover, the corrosion resistance of Elmax steel ensures that these tools remain in excellent condition even with regular exposure to moisture and varying environments, making them dependable companions for everyday use.

Specialty and Tactical Applications

Elmax steel’s properties also make it suitable for specialty and tactical knives, where performance under extreme conditions is critical. Tactical folding knives, rescue tools, and military-grade fixed blades crafted from Elmax steel provide the reliability and efficiency required in emergency situations, including rescue operations and survival scenarios. The steel’s combination of toughness, wear resistance, and ability to hold a sharp edge ensures that these tools perform when it matters most.

Elmax Steel applications

Working with Elmax Steel: Machining, Grinding, and Sharpening

Elmax steel, with its remarkable blend of durability, toughness, and resistance to wear, presents unique challenges and opportunities in the knife-making process. This section provides insights into the technical nuances of working with Elmax steel, from initial machining and grinding to the final sharpening stages, ensuring that craftsmen can fully leverage its superior properties.

Machining and Grinding

The very attributes that make Elmax steel a premium knife material—its hardness and wear resistance—also make it demanding to machine and grind. Knifemakers must employ advanced techniques and tools to shape and refine Elmax steel effectively.

Machining Precautions: Due to its high hardness, especially after heat treatment, working with Elmax steel requires carbide or similarly hard-tipped tools. Slow speeds, careful feeds, and adequate cooling are essential to prevent tool wear and to maintain the integrity of the steel’s structure.

Grinding Techniques: Grinding Elmax steel to form the blade’s edge or to refine its shape is best done with high-quality abrasive materials, such as ceramic belts or diamond wheels. Keeping the steel cool during the grinding process is crucial to prevent overheating, which can lead to tempering of the steel and a reduction in its overall hardness and performance.

Sharpening Techniques

Sharpening Elmax steel knives is an art that balances maintaining the ultra-sharp edge characteristic of this material while not removing excessive material, which can shorten the blade’s lifespan.

Choosing the Right Sharpening Tools: Ceramic stones, diamond plates, and high-grit water stones are recommended for sharpening Elmax steel, as they can efficiently hone the blade without causing undue wear.

Technique and Angle: A consistent angle between 15° and 20° (depending on the knife’s purpose) should be maintained throughout the sharpening process. Gentle, even strokes across the sharpening medium help achieve a razor-sharp edge. Patience is key, as the steel’s wear resistance can make the sharpening process more time-consuming than with softer materials.

Heat Treatment Considerations

The heat treatment process is critical in achieving the desired balance of hardness, toughness, and wear resistance in Elmax steel. Manufacturers typically recommend specific heat treatment protocols, including the quenching medium and tempering temperatures, to optimize the steel’s performance. Adhering to these guidelines ensures that the steel’s potential is fully realized, offering the best possible outcome in the final product.


Heat Treatment

steel quenching

In conclusion

Elmax Steel offers a compelling combination of hardness, toughness, corrosion resistance, and edge retention, making it a popular choice for knives used in various demanding applications. While other steels offer different strengths and weaknesses, Elmax remains a top contender for those seeking a versatile and high-performance blade material. With ongoing research and development, we can expect to see even more exciting advancements in this area, pushing the boundaries of what’s possible in knife-making technology.

Author: Aleks Nemtcev | Connect with me on LinkedIn


PM steel manufacturer: Crucible Industries.

PM stainless steels American Society for Materials.

Elmax SuperClean Uddeholm.

Credits: Images by Uddeholm.

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