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Mosaic Damascus Patterns - How it's Made

Written by:
Dr. Braide Honest
January 5, 2023
mosaic damascus steel patterns 2

Noblie boasts over a decade of expertise in crafting and distributing mosaic Damascus steel. Our workshop has gained international acclaim for its complex mosaic patterns in steel. We specialize in handcrafting Damascus steel blanks suitable for knife blades, bolsters, and a variety of other applications. Noblie’s mosaic Damascus steel is marketed across the US, Europe, and globally. Noblie Custom Knives periodically creates bespoke patterns utilizing EDM (Electrical Discharge Machining) cutting and canister Damascus forging techniques. These processes yield mosaic Damascus steel adorned with unique patterns, including snowflakes, skulls, and animal motifs.

What is Mosaic Damascus Steel?

Mosaic Damascus Steel is a type of pattern-welded steel renowned for its intricate designs. Mosaic Damascus steel is crafted using different types of steel, each with its own unique chemical composition, which results in a variety of colors after the etching process. Unlike traditional Damascus steel, Mosaic Damascus takes the artistry further by arranging different steel types in a way that, when forged together, creates elaborate, pictorial patterns on the blade. This results in each Mosaic Damascus piece being a unique blend of art and functionality.

pattern weldingModern Damascus Steel

Pattern welded steel is a famous type of steel that is easily recognized by its wavy light-dark metal pattern. This kind of steel is made by repeated forge welding of plates that differ from each other in their chemical composition and, consequently, in color after etching.

handmade custom knives

How to Make Damascus Pattern

It is necessary to take carbon steel and steel with high nickel content (or pure nickel).  Damascus steel patterns vary depending on how the craftsman works with the workpiece. Damascus steel is made from several types of steel welded together into a blank.

This steel is known for its exquisite designs and patterns and is often used to make  Damascus knives and  Damascus steel daggers.  It takes the best steel to make them stable and flexible.

Using two alternating types of steel, the blacksmith heats, twists, and stacks layers of metal to create vibrant patterns. Within patterns of Damascus steel, the steel can be shades of white, gray, or black. Experienced blacksmiths can create many patterns while forging. Then the blade must be hardened.

mosaic damascus pattern

Mosaic Damascus Steel

Mosaic Damascus steel is more difficult to manufacture than the usual Damascus. “Mosaic” steel is also made by forge welding multi-colored steels, and this method is quite ancient. The pattern of a Mosaic Damascus steel piece is obtained by symmetrically arranging blanks from different types of steel. To compile this mosaic, it’s necessary to use plates and specially-made rods of a very complex cross-section. Depending on the specific arrangement of these dissimilar elements, the pattern of a cross-section of a welded patterned block can be quite complex. A simpler pattern is formed when a block of bars and plates of rectangular and cross-sections are assembled.

mosaic damascus blades for sale

Good examples are patterns such as “chessboard” and “star” also known as “cross”. Welding such a block is not difficult, so numerous European gun barrel manufacturers use it very often. A “mesh” mosaic has the same level of complexity; it is obtained by welding a briquette of many steel bars of square cross-sections with thin nickel plates laid between them.

mosaic damascus steel


Mosaic Canister Damascus

It is more laborious to manufacture a block with a complex ornament, such as letters, multi-beam stars, and the like. The original blocks with such patterns can be welded into a monolith, using special mandrels and linings; otherwise, many heterogeneous fibers will spread during forging. Composite steel is made by placing solid and powdered steel in a metal can and fusing them together during forge welding using heat and pressure. Learn about making canister Damascus.

making mosaic canister Damascus

mosaic canister Damascus making

canister mosaic Damascus

Video credit: Fire Creek Forge.

mosaic damascus billet

canister damascus

mosaic damascus

mosaic canister damascus


mosaic damascus patterns

Creating Custom Images in Damascus Steel

Crafting intricate figures within Damascus steel has evolved significantly. Artists now commonly embed images such as bird-hunting scenes, mammoths, shamrocks, dragons, and countless other motifs in blades. The advent of powdered steel has simplified this process, allowing for greater creativity and precision.

Traditional Methods with EDM

Before powdered steel became widespread, artisans used Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) to cut figures from two contrasting steel blocks. By interchanging the male parts, they could forge-weld these pieces to create two bars with the same figure, one dark and one light. However, this method was both costly and prone to distortion due to uneven forging, despite the intricate details achievable.

Using Powdered Steel for Figures

With powdered steel, the process has become more efficient. An EDM machine cuts a figure from a block, which is then filled with contrasting powdered steel. The male part is placed in a square tube, capped at one end, filled with contrasting powdered steel, and forge-welded. This method produces two bars with identical figures at half the cost of the traditional EDM technique.

mosaic damascus knives

Stacking Plates for Detailed Images

Another effective method involves cutting and stacking plates of material. Laser or water jet cutting, which is less expensive than EDM, cuts these plates. The cut-out figure is then filled with contrasting powdered steel, and the stack is forge-welded in a square tube. Welding the ends of the stack first prevents powder from sifting between the plates. The billet is forged into a square bar with the figure on the end, offering great detail at a lower cost and with more readily available materials.

Using Nickel Sheets

Figures can also be created by shaping pure nickel sheets around molds. Wooden cut-outs of animals, skulls, snowflakes, and other figures can serve as molds for forming the nickel. This method is cost-effective and doesn’t require external processes like EDM or laser cutting. The nickel form is placed in a square tube, filled with powdered steel, and forge-welded. Special shapes can also be forged and included in these billets to achieve the desired effect.



mosaic damascus patterns

Compacting Powdered Steels

When using powdered steels, it is essential to compact the powder as much as possible before sealing the tube. Vibrating the tube helps the powder settle densely. Although these billets feel soft during the initial forge welding, they begin to solidify after being reduced by about one-third.

Handling Different Powders

Different powders forge at varying rates, making experience crucial to minimize distortion in the billets. Starting with simpler designs helps in understanding the movement within the billet, leading to more predictable and successful results over time.


mosaic Damascus steel

Not Just a Mosaic – A Masterpiece of Forge Welding!

The essence, value, and meaning of the very existence of mosaic Damascus (like any complex Damascus steel) is really the fact that it’s in very scarce supply. That is why mosaic Damascus blades are sought-after collectibles. A treasure must have three properties – they should be rare, of high value, and exciting.

damascus pattern

TOP Mosaic Damascus Blades (video review)

Video credit: Noblie Custom Knives.

How to Make Mosaic Damascus Steel

The creation of Mosaic Damascus Steel is a meticulous process that begins with selecting various types of steel, which are stacked, forge-welded, and folded together.

The process of forging a mosaic Damascus is similar to creating a simple Damascus pattern, however, you need to be more sophisticated in some details. If you want a really fanciful design in your mosaic Damascus, just be more inventive when cutting and re-assembling the layers of your billet. And go as many rounds as you can to multiply pattern complexity.

The distinction lies in how the steel is manipulated to form intricate designs. Skilled artisans strategically cut, twist, and rearrange the forged steel to create a mosaic-like pattern, which is then further forged to form a unified piece. The process demands a high level of precision and mastery to achieve the desired artistic and structural quality.


Step 1: Selection of Materials
Obtain high-quality steel for the blade (such as 1084 or 15N20).
Choose contrasting metals for the layers (nickel, mild steel, or other alloys).
Set up a forge, anvil, hammer, and other blacksmithing tools.

assemble the billetStep 2: Preparation of the Initial Billet
Cut the selected steels into uniform lengths. Stack these pieces in alternating layers to form an initial billet. The number of layers varies depending on the desired pattern complexity. Assemble your billet, as you normally do for a Damascus.

Step 3: Forge-Welding
Heat the billet in a forge until it reaches welding temperature, typically above 2,000°F. Remove and quickly hammer the billet to forge-weld the layers together. Repeat this process, ensuring the billet maintains a uniform shape and the layers bond well.

how to make mosaic damascus steelhow to make mosaic damascus

forging damascus bar

Step 4: Drawing Out and Folding
After initial forge-welding, elongate the billet by hammering and then fold it back onto itself. This folding process can vary in technique to influence the final pattern. Repeat the heating, drawing, and folding process several times to increase layer count.

bar heating and folding


making Damascus bar

Step 5: Pattern Development
To create specific mosaic patterns, cut the folded billet into sections and rearrange these sections into a new billet. Techniques such as twisting, cutting, and re-stacking are used to form intricate patterns. Each method impacts the final mosaic design differently. For example, you may stack four bars in a quaternary cross-section, or invent another structure. Tack-weld the bars.

damascus bars

cutting billets

After doing the heating and cutting a couple of times, you may go creative. This time, cut your billet at an angle and re-assemble the pieces by turning each of them by 90 degrees. This will reveal the mosaic pattern on the blade surface. Tack-weld the pieces again.

mosaic Damascus making

tack weld pieces

forging process

heat billet

Step 7: Shaping and Refining
Shape the welded billet into the desired form, typically a blade. This step requires precision to preserve the mosaic patterns while achieving the necessary blade geometry.

heating the billet

Damascus knife forging

pre finish bladeShape the blade using a grinder, files, and sandpaper.
Pay attention to the pattern and ensure it remains intact.

profiling a knife blade


how to grind a knife

Now you have a pre-finished blade with a mosaic pattern in it! All that remains is to grind, heat treat, and polish it.

knife grinding

Step 8: Heat Treatment
Heat treat the shaped blade for hardening and tempering. This step is crucial for the functionality of the blade, involving heating to critical temperature, quenching, and tempering to achieve desired hardness and toughness.

heat treat a blade

Step 9: Etching
Submerge the finished blade in an acid solution, such as ferric chloride, to etch the surface. The etching reveals the contrasting patterns of the different steels, highlighting the mosaic design.

damascus knife blade etching

Step 10: Final Finishing
Clean and polish the etched blade, enhancing the visibility and contrast of the mosaic pattern. Apply protective coatings if necessary to guard against corrosion.

how to make mosaic damascus blade

You can choose and buy a mosaic Damascus knife at the Noblie website. 

Mosaic Damascus Video: Crafting Steel Masterpieces

The Mosaic Damascus video section showcases the intricate artistry and craftsmanship behind the creation of Mosaic Damascus steel. Through captivating visuals and expert demonstrations, viewers are taken on a journey into the world of forging, welding, and shaping layers of steel to create stunning and unique patterns in the blade. This section provides a mesmerizing glimpse into the modern art of Mosaic Damascus steelmaking, offering insight into the meticulous techniques that produce these beautiful and rare blades.

Video credit: Kyle Royer.

Safety and Expertise Considerations
Mosaic Damascus steelmaking requires advanced blacksmithing skills, proper safety equipment, and a well-equipped forge. Beginners should seek training and guidance from experienced smiths.

mosaic damascus samples

FAQ on Mosaic Damascus Steel

mosaic damascus

How Does Mosaic Damascus Steel Differ from Traditional Damascus Steel?

Traditional Damascus steel, originating from ancient sword-making techniques, typically features wavy or flowing patterns. Mosaic Damascus steel, a modern innovation, distinguishes itself through more complex and deliberate patterns, often resembling geometric shapes or specific imagery. This difference arises from the advanced methods of layering, folding, and manipulating the steel.

Is Mosaic Damascus Steel Superior in Performance?

Mosaic Damascus steel’s performance largely depends on the base materials used and the skill of the artisan. While its aesthetic appeal is undeniable, its functional superiority over other high-quality steel types is subjective and often a matter of personal preference. Quality Mosaic Damascus blades, however, do exhibit excellent edge retention, strength, and durability when crafted by skilled artisans.

Can Mosaic Damascus be used for functional tools?

While Mosaic Damascus is renowned for its intricate and artistic patterns, it is also functional. The steel’s quality and the skill involved in its making ensure that it can be used for high-quality knives and other tools, though it is often found in more decorative or collectible items.

What are the applications of Mosaic Damascus Steel?

Mosaic Damascus Steel primarily serves in high-end custom knife making. Knife enthusiasts and collectors value it for its aesthetic appeal and uniqueness. Additionally, it finds use in making jewelry, decorative swords, and other artistic metalwork where visual impact is paramount.

How do I care for a Mosaic Damascus Steel blade?

Maintaining Mosaic Damascus steel involves regular cleaning, oiling, and storing in a dry environment to prevent corrosion. Abrasive materials should be avoided to maintain the integrity of the patterns. Sharpening requires fine stones or honing tools to preserve the edge without distorting the intricate designs.

best mosaic damascus


Mosaic Damascus steel is not merely a concoction of metal, but a narrative told through the hands of skilled artisans. Its allure lies in the complex dance of colors and patterns, telling tales of ancient craftsmanship while embracing modern creativity. The meticulous process of forging Mosaic Damascus steel is a homage to the boundless human imagination and technical prowess. As we admire a blade crafted from this magnificent material, we don’t just see a tool, but a canvas where metal breathes life into art.

The blend of tradition and innovation present in Mosaic Damascus Steel stands as a testament to the enduring quest for beauty and excellence in the world of blade craftsmanship. Each layer, each pattern holds a story, waiting to be unsheathed and told to the world. Through the lens of Mosaic Damascus steel, we not only appreciate the rich heritage of blade forging but also envision an exciting horizon where the ancient and the modern continue to meld, forging legacies in steel.

Author: Braide Honest | Connect with me on LinkedIn


Advanced Mosaic Damascus New England School of Metalwork.

How to create Damascus patterns 

Image Credits: Kyle Royer, Igor Leonov.

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  • Liviu Sipoteanu

    True masterpieces. How much does a billet cost?

  • Spear Shaker

    They all are amazing I couldn’t even decide. I wouldn’t even be mad if I got stabbed by one. I would just be like wow nice knife ☠

  • Stanciu Gheorghe

    Art and craftsmanship

  • TFP

    While searching for the necessary information on the Internet, I found this article. Many people think that they have adequate knowledge about the topic they are discussing, but this is not the case. Hence my pleasant surprise. Simply great article. I will recommend this place and visit often to read new articles.

  • joachim

    Tolle Muster
    Braucht wahrscheinlich mehr als 100 lagen,oder?

  • joachim

    Great patterns.
    Probably needs more than 100 layers, right?


    Mosaic Damascus steel does not have a specific, fixed number of layers. The term “mosaic” in the context of Damascus steel refers to the pattern and design created by folding and manipulating different steels together, rather than a specific layer count. The unique patterns seen in mosaic Damascus are achieved through a combination of folding, twisting, and other forging techniques.

    That said, traditional Damascus steel, whether it’s a mosaic pattern or another type, is often folded multiple times. With each fold, the number of layers doubles. For example:

    Starting with 2 layers and folding once results in 4 layers.
    Folding it again would result in 8 layers.
    A third fold would give 16 layers.
    A fourth fold would give 32 layers, and so on.
    A blade could be folded 10 times, resulting in over 1,000 layers. However, it’s worth noting that too many folds can start to homogenize the steel, causing the distinctive patterns to diminish.

    In the end, the specific number of layers in a piece of mosaic Damascus steel will depend on the smith’s intent, the desired pattern, and the techniques used.

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