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Viking Knives: A Closer Look at Different Viking Knife Types

Written by:
Philip Lufolk
May 17, 2024
viking seax

Have you wondered what the Vikings carried in their pockets? While fearsome axes and mighty swords come to mind, a far more versatile tool was their constant companion: the Viking knife. These weren’t just weapons, but essential tools for everyday life, reflecting practicality and cultural significance.

So, let us discover the fascinating world of Viking knife types, their designs, and some interesting facts about these blades that were as unique as the Norse people themselves. We’ll explore the materials used, how size and design varied depending on purpose, and the many ways these Viking tools were used. We’ll even uncover the secrets hidden in their decorations and delve into the symbolic meaning they held in Norse culture. 

viking knives

Image Credits: David DelaGardelle / Cedarlore Forge

The primary materials used in the construction of Viking knives

The heart of any knife is its blade, and Viking Age knives were no exception. The materials Vikings used to craft these essential tools, varied depending on the availability of materials, their performance characteristics, and even social status influenced the construction of Viking Age knife blades.


  • Steel: Iron alloyed with carbon makes steel, which can be hardened to hold an edge. Steel was the most common material used for the blades of Viking Age knives. This was due to its availability and the ability to be sharpened to an effective edge.
    • Advantages: Iron was widely available in the Viking Age, making it accessible for widespread use. Steel is relatively easy to forge and sharpen, allowing for effective tool and weapon making.
    • Disadvantages: Iron is susceptible to corrosion if not properly maintained, which could compromise the blade’s integrity over time. A variety in quality. Compared to modern steel, the steel used back then could be softer and may lose its edge quicker, requiring frequent sharpening.
  • Higher quality steel: For wealthier individuals or more finely crafted weapons, higher quality steel was sometimes used, providing a sharper, more durable edge. Higher-quality steel was more expensive and less available, it also required more advanced metallurgical skills, making it a less common choice for the average Viking.


  • Wood: The most common handle material due to its abundance and ease of shaping.
    • Advantages: readily available, easy to carve for a custom grip.
    • Disadvantages: susceptible to cracking and swelling with moisture.
  • Bone: A popular choice offering durability and a unique aesthetic.
  • Advantages: strong and durable, visually appealing with natural textures and colors.
  • Disadvantages: more challenging to work with than wood, and natural variations can affect handle uniformity.
  • Antler: Similar to bone, antlers provide strength and a distinctive look.
    • Advantages: shares the advantages of bone – strong, aesthetically pleasing.
    • Disadvantages: shares the disadvantages of bone – harder to work with, natural variations can affect handle strength.
  • Horn & Whalebone: materials like horn & whalebone were used for status symbols or ceremonial knives.
    • Advantages: signified wealth, offered good impact resistance and didn’t splinter.
    • Disadvantages: less available than other materials, required maintenance to prevent drying and cracking.

Video Credit: David DelaGardelle

Designs and Sizes of Viking Age Knives

Viking Age knives were anything but a one-size-fits-all proposition. These versatile tools showcased a remarkable range of designs and sizes, reflecting not only their diverse uses but also the skill and ingenuity of Viking blacksmiths.

Tailored for the Task: Size and Shape

  • A Spectrum of Sizes: Archaeological evidence points to a spectrum of knife sizes, from small and nimble blades perfect for everyday tasks to larger, more robust knives designed for combat or hunting.
  • Shape Speaks Volumes: The shape, size, and thickness of the blade weren’t random choices. Each variation was meticulously crafted to excel at its intended purpose.

viking knives

Utility Viking Knife

Utility Knives: Imagine small, nimble blades with simple, straight, or slightly curved edges. Often found in graves across social classes, these were the workhorses of the Viking household, perfect for cutting, carving, and even mealtime. Handles were typically plain wood or bone, prioritizing function over form.

Seax Seax

The Seax: This larger type of knife served multiple purposes, from combat to heavy-duty chores. Seax’s size varied greatly, ranging from small belt knives to formidable sword-like weapons. The iconic design features a single cutting edge and a distinctive “broken-back” profile where the back of the blade drops sharply towards the point. While some seaxes were plain and utilitarian, others were adorned with intricate decorations, showcasing the skill of Viking craftspeople.

viking utility knife

Image Credit: David DelaGardelle / Cedarlore Forge

A Touch of Symbolism

Some Viking knives transcended their practical use. Intricate designs, pattern welding (a decorative technique combining different metals), inlays of precious metals like silver or gold, and even carvings on the handles adorned these blades. This suggests that beyond their practical applications, some Viking knives held symbolic significance within Viking society.

Clues from the Past

While finding exact knife dimensions from the Viking Age can be challenging, the practice of weapon deposits in rivers and wetlands offers valuable clues. Knives of various sizes in these ritual offerings hint at the diverse array of knife types that existed during this era.

anglo saxon seax

Uses of Viking Knives

Viking knives were essential tools in various aspects of daily life, serving multiple practical purposes:

  • Food Preparation: Knives were used for cutting, slicing, and preparing food, including meat, fish, and vegetables.
  • Leatherworking: They were employed in crafting and repairing leather goods, such as shoes, belts, and bags.
  • Woodworking: Carving knives were used for shaping wood, making tools, utensils, and other wooden items.
  • Building Shelters: They played a role in constructing and maintaining shelters, including cutting ropes and shaping wooden components.
  • Personal Care: Knives were used for grooming tasks, such as trimming hair and nails.

In addition to their utility in daily tasks, Viking Age knives also served as weapons:

  • Close Combat: The seax is a type of Viking knife. It is a single-edged knife or short sword that could be used in close-quarters fighting, reflecting the dual-purpose nature of many Viking tools and weapons.

These versatile tools were integral to Viking life, highlighting their importance in both everyday activities and combat situations.


Image Credit: David DelaGardelle / Cedarlore Forge

Decorations and Personalization of Viking Knife


Viking knife handles were often decorated and personalized, reflecting the owner’s status and artistic expression:

  • Carvings: Handles were frequently carved with intricate geometric patterns.
  • Inlays: For wealthier individuals, knife handles might be inlaid with metalwork (such as silver or bronze), adding an element of luxury and prestige to the object.


In addition to the handles, the scabbards (sheaths) that protected the blades were also subject to decorative treatments:

  • Leather Adornments: Scabbards were commonly made of leather and adorned with metal fittings, such as decorative mounts, chapes (metal tips), or suspension rings, which could be intricately designed or embellished.
  • Embroidery: Some scabbards may have featured embroidered designs or patterns, adding color and texture to the leather surface.

The level of decoration and personalization of Nordik Knife varied greatly, reflecting the owner’s social status, wealth, and cultural traditions. Wealthier individuals or those of higher rank often possessed more ornate and finely crafted knives, while simpler versions were likely used by commoners or for everyday tasks.

Based on the provided search results, Viking Age knives held significant importance in Norse culture, serving practical, symbolic, and status-related functions.

Video Credit: @scholagladiatoria

Norse Viking Knife: Everyday Essential Tool

Knives were indispensable tools in the daily lives of Vikings. Their versatility made them essential for survival and everyday activities.

  • Status Symbol: The materials used for the blade and handle, as well as the level of ornamentation, often reflected the owner’s social standing and wealth.
  • Carried by Both Men and Women: Knives were carried by both men and women in Viking society.
  • Spiritual Significance: Some evidence suggests that knives may have held spiritual or ritual importance.


Nordic Knives: More Than Meets the Eye

Viking knives were more than just blades; they were testaments of Viking ingenuity. We explored the materials used, the variations in size and design, and their diverse roles.

Blacksmiths skillfully forged the blades and utilized available materials for reliable everyday knives. Higher-quality steel and exotic materials transformed them into works of art for the wealthy.

From small, nimble blades for daily tasks to the formidable seax, knives were meticulously crafted for their purpose.

Intricate designs and symbolic carvings hint at a deeper significance for some knives, potentially serving as symbols of status, power, or even holding spiritual meaning.

The presence of knives in weapon deposits offers a glimpse into the past, revealing the vast array of Viking Age knife types.

Studying these knives allows us to appreciate the Viking Age, a time of remarkable craftsmanship and rich culture. Their legacy lives on, a testament to Viking ingenuity sharpened by both steel and spirit.

How to Make a Viking Knife

Creating a Viking knife involves a process that blends traditional forging with precise craftsmanship. Start by selecting high-quality carbon steel, which offers the durability and sharp edge characteristic of Viking blades.

Heat the steel in a forge until it reaches a malleable state, then hammer it into shape on an anvil, gradually forming the distinctive broad blade with a single, slightly curved edge. After shaping, normalize the blade by heating and cooling it slowly to relieve internal stresses.

Next, harden the blade by heating it again and quenching it in oil, followed by tempering to achieve the perfect balance between hardness and flexibility.

Finish by grinding and sharpening the blade to a razor edge.

Finally, craft a handle from robust wood or bone, securing it with pins and adding intricate carvings for authenticity. The result is a Viking knife that not only pays homage to ancient traditions but also serves as a functional and durable tool.

Video Credit: Lufolk Crafts.

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Author: Philip Lufolk

Co-author: Aleks Nemtcev | Connect with me on LinkedIn


Seax The British Museum

Image Credits:

Knives from the Viking Age – Wareham Forge

Viking Age Arms and armour 



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