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What is Wootz steel?

Written by:
Aleks Nemtcev
March 12, 2024
wootz steel

Wootz steel, also known as traditional Damascus steel, is an ancient alloy used in weapon production that dates back to the 5th century BC. The material has a unique pattern due to the application of a complex chemical and heating process that was used during its production. This wootz steel is renowned for its hardness and strength, making it incredibly difficult to forge and shape; however, when done correctly it can produce swords of unparalleled sharpness and strength. It became popularized throughout Europe during medieval times where its distinct patterns were seen on swords worn by royalty or nobles.

wootz steel

The exact composition of wootz steel has been debated for centuries with some suggesting that meteoritic iron was used in combination with locally sourced materials such as charcoal and clay to create this mysterious alloy. Recent studies have shown that up to 15 different elements are found within most pieces of wootz steel ranging from carbon to copper to nickel; however, these remain secondary components when compared with the main components: iron (75-90%) laminated carbide (5-20%) along with trace elements such as manganese or cobalt at 1%. However, without precise knowledge regarding the ancient formula, it is impossible to truly replicate this legendary alloy today but modern alloys have taken heavy influence from these original recipes giving rise once again after thousands of years!

wootz steel blade

The history of ancient Wootz

Ancient Wootz steel was incredibly strong, highly resistant to breakage, had a dark lustrous coloration, and could cut through nearly any other metal with ease.

wootz making

These characteristics were due to the unique production process which utilized deep pits where iron ore ore would be placed with anthracite coal or charcoal along with other select ingredients. The mix was heated for many days at extremely high temperatures until it became a liquid mass which would then solidify into a hard block after cooling- what we now call Wootz steel!

wootz knives

wootz blade

Because of this quality of strength and sharpness, these blades proved invaluable in warfare as swords or spears that could pierce the toughest armor yet remain flexible enough not to shatter upon impact – unlike other edged weapons such as bronze or iron blades. This gave Indian warriors an edge over their adversaries at battlefields across Europe and Asia alike throughout centuries past.

cast damascus

Modern researchers have since gone on to study ancient Wootz production techniques utilizing scientific methods such as 3D scanning electron microscopy so as to better understand why these weapons were so successful in battle compared to those made from more traditional materials like bronze – giving us further insight into this fascinating historical era!

wootz steel

Wootz: Unique Properties

A. Composition: The distinct identity of Wootz steel is significantly attributed to its high carbon content, which often exceeds 1.5%, alongside the presence of trace elements such as vanadium and molybdenum. These elements collectively contribute to the exceptional attributes of Wootz steel, setting it apart from other forms of steel prevalent during its era.

B. Microstructure: One of the defining features of Wootz steel is its characteristic patterned surface, often referred to as the “Damascus” pattern. This intriguing pattern arises from the unique microstructure of the steel, which comprises carbide formations dispersed within a matrix of tempered martensite or pearlite. The carbides contribute to the distinctive visual appeal as well as the mechanical performance of the steel.

C. Durability and Sharpness: Wootz steel is celebrated for its remarkable durability, tensile strength, and edge sharpness. The superior tensile strength bestowed by its high carbon content, coupled with its unique microstructure, imparts an exceptional level of durability and sharpness, making it highly sought-after for crafting weaponry and armor. The meticulous balance of toughness and sharpness rendered Wootz steel superior to other steels of its time, paving its way into the annals of metallurgical excellence.

Discovery of the Wootz steel secret

This process would involve adding certain materials such as magnesium oxide and charcoal to molten iron ore which helped create high-carbon steel that had remarkable strength and sharpness.

crucible steel

The same components with one method of processing will give a steel alloy at the output, and with another method of processing will give a cast wootz at the output. Simplifying a bit, we can say that Wootz is primarily a manufacturing technology, not a chemical composition. Thus, we come to the conclusion that by putting iron and carbon together and passing this composition through a certain technology, we get cast steel. An important point of the Wootz steel production technology is the moment of crystallization. It is he who creates a rigid dendritic lattice in the alloy structure, which creates the same chaotic wootz pattern on the blade.

wootz steel making

Many craftsmen make custom knives from cast Damascus, but everyone has their own alloy production technology. Someone gets steel, and someone has wootz steel.

wootz making


Video credit: FZ- Making knives

Wootz steel composition

Wootz steel is a type of crucible steel. It is characterized by a high carbon content (about 1.5%-1.9%) and a pattern of bands formed by sheets of microscopic carbides within a tempered martensite or pearlite matrix.

PMI test of Wootz:


wootz composition

The Influence of Wootz Steel on Modern Metallurgical Advancements

The acknowledgment of steel as an alloy composed of iron and carbon was significantly underpinned by the chemical analysis of wootz steel in 1774, conducted by the Swedish chemist Tobern Bergman. This seminal revelation coincided with the Chemical Revolution spearheaded by Lavoisier, with the designation of carbon as an element injecting momentum into the burgeoning field of chemistry. The inception of chemistry, to an extent, owes its genesis to the mastery of iron by early metalworkers.

The empirical development of wootz steel in Southern India, and its subsequent refinement into the formidable and aesthetically captivating Damascus swords through thermo-mechanical treatments in India and the Middle East, forms a compelling narrative in the metallurgical chronicles. The remarkable facet of this development lay in the minimal understanding of the scientific principles underlying these processes. When wootz steel was introduced to the Western hemisphere, it ignited a fervor among scientists across England, France, Russia, and Sweden, who delved into unraveling its composition, microstructure, and their correlation to its mechanical attributes. This fervent exploration of an Eastern technological marvel by Western scientists, including luminaries like Michael Faraday, Breant, Anasoff, and Belaiew, over a span of a century, significantly contributed to laying the bedrock for contemporary materials science.

The progressive scrutiny of Wootz steel necessitated the delineation of the phase diagram of the iron-carbon system. The pioneering comprehensive construction of this diagram was undertaken by Roberts-Austen in 1898, marking the inception of phase diagram construction for alloys. This diagram elucidated the distinction of products like wrought iron, plain carbon steels, ultra-high-carbon steels, and cast irons based on their compositional variations. It also facilitated the identification of distinct phases such as austenite, ferrite, and cementite, along with phase reactions like peritectic, eutectic, and eutectoid. The interplay of these phases gave rise to microstructures comprising pearlite and ledeburite. The broad adoption of the optical microscope in metallurgical studies was significantly propelled by the comprehensive examinations of wootz steel, thereby enriching the field with enhanced analytical capabilities.


The Iron-Carbon (Fe-C) diagram, pioneered by Roberts Austen in 1898, holds the distinction of being the inaugural phase diagram established for any alloy. Following this significant contribution, the phase of austenite was named in honor of Roberts Austen.

Wootz Steel making process

A. Raw Materials: The creation of Wootz Steel commenced with the meticulous selection of specific ores and materials. Predominantly, high-quality iron ores rich in carbon were employed, often supplemented with additional carbon and certain trace elements to achieve the desired properties. The choice of raw materials was pivotal in ensuring the superior quality of Wootz steel, setting the stage for the production of this legendary alloy.

B. Crucible Technique: Central to the production of Wootz steel was the crucible method. This seminal process involved placing the selected raw materials into crucibles, which were then sealed and heated in a furnace at high temperatures for several hours. The controlled heating allowed for the melting and homogenization of the contents, producing ingots of high-carbon steel. The subsequent slow cooling facilitated the formation of the characteristic microstructure, including the distinctive carbide formations that contributed to the steel’s exceptional properties.

C. Skill Involved: The production of Wootz steel was not merely a mechanical process, but a testament to the profound skill and expertise of ancient metallurgists. The nuanced understanding of the material, mastery over the crucible technique, and the ability to control the process parameters were quintessential in producing Wootz steel of superior quality.

wootz billet

During the extremely slow cooling of molten steel, a dendritic structure of austenite forms. The slower the cooling, the larger the dendrites, or austenitic crystals, become. Between these dendrites, in what’s known as the interdendritic phase, the free carbides remain somewhat longer in the liquid state due to their lower solidification point. As cooling continues, these carbides too, solidify.

During solidification, vanadium carbides, owing to their structure, tend to float at the front of the advancing wave of solidification, without mixing into the emerging structure. The last solidified component of the steel is the bands of vanadium carbides, positioned in the center of the interdendritic phase. These inclusions of vanadium carbide create a kind of negative image of primary, secondary, and tertiary dendrites of varying concentrations.

The Damascus structure is created by forging a single starting material. This form of Damascus is termed structural, and its pattern becomes prominent after the precise heating of supra-eutectic coarse-crystalline steel, followed by special forging. However, before forging, the resulting Wootz needs to be diffusely annealed, as its properties are closer to cast iron than to steel. By heating to a temperature of 1100 – 1130°C for 1 – 6 hours, the surface layer is decarburized, and the internal cast structure transforms, positively affecting the resulting malleability.

For forging, the steel is heated to a temperature of 850-920 °C and, after cooling, is heated again to 730 °C. This forging process causes significant breakage of wrought steel, which, from a microstructural standpoint, exists as pearlitic-cementite. Instead of cementite needles, a spherical element appears on the surface, crucial for creating a typical appearance. However, the resulting marbling is not expedient but is intended to serve as proof of the steel’s quality. The resulting blade, with a carbon content of around 1.5%, has a low content of carbide-forming elements, with vanadium being the most abundant. More precisely, clusters of its carbides act like micro saw, providing the steel with excellent cutting ability. Therefore, there’s no need for hardening, as doing so will only enhance the blade’s already excellent properties.

Learn how to make Wootz steel, a legendary metal with a unique pattern and superior strength. This video shows you the modern process of smelting iron and carbon from raw materials, forging and shaping the steel into blades, and etching the distinctive Damascus pattern. Discover the history and secrets of this fascinating metalwork technique that has been lost for centuries.

Take a look at our Wootz knife, Art knife with Wootz blade, custom Wootz knife, real Damascus steel knife, Wootz steel Pirates knife, Black Panther Wootz knife, and Shamshir sword with Wootz steel blade in our catalog.

Video Credit: Loades Of History.


The enduring legacy of wootz steel as a remarkable and innovative material spans from ancient history to the contemporary era, with the recent explorations into its properties being almost as captivating as its historical narrative. Modern examinations unveiling characteristics like superplasticity in the ultra-high carbon composition of wootz steel underscore its designation as a sophisticated material of antiquity. This suggests that Wootz steel holds not just a rich historical significance, but also a potential relevance in future metallurgical advancements.

Author: Aleks Nemtcev | Connect with me on LinkedIn


Wootz steel

Wootz (steel) Indian, Damascus & Crucible

A journey of over 200 years: early studies on Wootz ingots and new findings regarding its outstanding toughness, flexibility,  and resistance.


“EBSD Study of Indian Wootz Steel Artifacts to Infer Thermomechanical Processing.” A study on ancient Wootz artifacts, classed as high carbon (hypereutectoid) crucible steels characterized by high strength, hardness, wear resistance, and their attractive surface pattern.

The Mystery of Damascus Blades BY JOHN D. VERHOEVEN

Crucible steel in medieval European and Indian swords / Alan Williams

Acknowledgments for assistance in writing the article: Michal Černý.

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  • Jacob Christian

    Hello I just found your website, awesome wootz work! I thought that I might share this with you. It is an online wootz calculator that I programmed.
    I am trying to share with everyone so people can gain awareness about wootz and have free access to tools and information.

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